Teacher’s choice using OER: feedback, test evaluation and goals, accessed learning

In this methodological guide, a test is an activity that indicates how well learners are meeting learning objectives. In this understanding, any activity that provides feedback on learners’ performance in relation to an object, goal, skill knowledge etc. can serve as at test.

Teachers feedback:  an effective tool with three types of feedback

In this guide, we focus on both formal and informal tests. In this understanding, feedback has at central role. According to Hattie, drawing on research on the teacher's impact on students learning, feedback is one of the most effective methods of enhancing students’ learning.  

Hattie develops the concepts of effective feedback by dividing feedback in to three perspectives and questions that must be answered. The purpose of feedback, in Hattie’s view, is to reduce discrepancies between the learner’s current understandings and performance on the one hand and the  goals that have been set on the other. In the feedback process, both teacher and the student can address the student’s learning process by fulfilling the following tasks.

The teachers task is to provide appropriate challenging and specific goals, or to assist students to reach the goals through effective feedback. 

The students task is to increase the effort and employment of more effective strategies, or to abandon, blur or lower the goals.

Effective feedback requires answers to three questions:

1. Question: Feed up: Where am I going? The goals.

2. Question: Feed back: How am I going?

3. Question: Feed forward: Where to next?

In Hattie’s view, each question works on four levels that are important for teachers, leaders and educational planners to incorporate into the student’s test.

On the task level, the student and teachers will encounter information of how well tasks are being understood and performed. On the process level, information concerning the processes needed to understand and perform tasks is revealed. On the level of self-regulation, the feedback guides the students and teacher towards the self-monitoring, direction and regulation of actions. And finally, on the level of the self, teachers and students receive feedback on their personal behaviour and their ability to perform the task effectively and reach visible goals.

Teacher’s choice: a test guide

Before testing the learner’s achievement of goals, skills and competences from the curricula developed under the Skillman project, the following should be considered: What is your aim in testing when you decide to test? How important are recorded scores? And what kinds of feedback is it important to give learners in light of the feedback questions and levels mentioned above? These decisions will be crucial and can later be incorporated or used as an training tool in addition to Skillman’s OER.    

The table below can serve as the first step in deciding and designing the quality of a test.

What do you want to accomplish with your test?

  Purpose of testing

How to test

Record scores

Feedback

Measure the progress of learners.

At the end of each topic, lesson and course.

Yes.

Numeric, at end of test.

Help learners measure their own progress.

Frequent, short test.

No.

Descriptive and numeric.

Certify learner’s knowledge.

Proctored, legally defensible test.

Yes.

Pass-fail or overall score. May also provide scores for sub-components so learners can study and try again.

Certify learner’s skills.

Observed accomplishment of prescribe tasks.

Yes.

Pass-fail or overall score. May also provide scores for sub-components so learners can study and try again.

Motivate learners.

Informal pre-test.

No.

Recommended areas of study.

   


Purpose of testing

How to test

Record scores

Feedback

Exercise independent learning skills.

‘Open-book’ test where learners can find answers in available resources.

No.

Recommended search targets and strategies.

Teach new knowledge and skills.

Informal, frequent, before presentation of content.

No.

Presentation of just the content that testing indicates the learner needs.

Diagnosing learner’s skills and knowledge.

Comprehensive test.

Yes.

Complete profile of what learners already know and need to learn.

Measure the effectiveness of learning modules.

Comparison of test scores between different modules and between modules before and after revision of pre-and post-test.

Yes.

 

Last modified: Tuesday, 13 February 2018, 4:40 PM